می دانید چگونه باید گزارشی از صحبت فردی دیگر ارائه دهید؟ به این مثال ها توجه نمایید تا متوجه شوید چگونه می توانیم به شخصی بگوییم که فردی دیگر چه گفته است؟
direct speech: 'I love the Toy Story films,' she said.
indirect speech: She said she loved the Toy Story films.
direct speech: 'I worked as a waiter before becoming a chef,' he said.
indirect speech: He said he'd worked as a waiter before becoming a chef.
direct speech: 'I'll phone you tomorrow,' he said.
indirect speech: He said he'd phone me the next day.
زمانی Reported speech انجام می دهیم که به فردی بگوییم شخص دیگر چه گفته است و این را می توانیم به صورت مستقیم (direct) یا غیر مستقیم (indirect) انجام دهیم.
direct speech: 'I work in a bank,' said Daniel.
indirect speech: Daniel said that he worked in a bank.
برای صحبت غیر مستقیم فعل شکل گذشته به خود می گیرد که به آن ' backshift' می گویند و ممکن است لازم باشد کلماتی دیگر از جمله ضمایر را تغییر دهیم.
Present simple، present continuous و present perfect
زمانی که backshift انجام می دهیم فعل present simple به past simple و present continuous به past continuous و present perfect به past perfect تغییر می کند.
'I travel a lot in my job.'
Jamila said that she travelled a lot in her job.
'The baby's sleeping!'
He told me the baby was sleeping.
'I've hurt my leg.'
She said she'd hurt her leg.
Past simple و past continuous
همانطور که گفتیم زمانی که از 'backshift' استفاده می کنیم معمولا past simple به past perfect و past continuous به past perfect continuous تغییر می کند
'We lived in China for five years.'
She told me they'd lived in China for five years.
'It was raining all day.'
He told me it had been raining all day.
فعل Past perfect در جمله برای نقل قول تغییر نمی کند
'I'd tried everything without success, but this new medicine is great.'
He said he'd tried everything without success, but the new medicine was great.
اگر گوینده مطبی بگوید که در حال حاضر صحیح یا مرتبط باشد و از فعل حال ساده استفاده کند، لزومی به تغییر زمان جمله نیست
'I go to the gym next to your house.'
Jenny told me that she goes to the gym next to my house. I'm thinking about going with her.
'I'm working in Italy for the next six months.'
He told me he's working in Italy for the next six months. Maybe I should visit him!
'I've broken my arm!'
She said she's broken her arm, so she won't be at work this week.
ضمایر و قیدهای زمان و مکان
به طور معمول در نقل قول غیر مستقیم، ضمایر تغییر می کند.
'I enjoy working in my garden,' said Bob.
Bob said that he enjoyed working in his garden.
'We played tennis for our school,' said Alina.
Alina told me they'd played tennis for their school.
اگر شما گوینده یا یکی از افرادی باشید که سخن را گفته است، ضمیر تغییر نمی کند
'I'm working on my thesis,' I said.
I told her that I was working on my thesis.
'We want our jobs back!' we said.
We said that we wanted our jobs back.
ضمایر اشاره و قیدهای مکان و زمان در صورتی که صحیح نباشند، عوض می شوند
'This is my house.'
He said this was his house. [You are currently in front of the house.]
He said that was his house. [You are not currently in front of the house.]
'We like it here.'
She told me they like it here. [You are currently in the place they like.]
She told me they like it there. [You are not in the place they like.]
'I'm planning to do it today.'
She told me she's planning to do it today. [It is currently still the same day.]
She told me she was planning to do it that day. [It is not the same day any more.]