• این نوع سوال شاید سوالی با چهار پاسخ ممکن یا بخش اول یک جمله با چهار جمله پایانی ممکن باشد. شما باید یک پاسخ صحیح را انتخاب کنید. A، B، C یا D را سپس پاسخ صحیح را بر روی پاسخنامه بنویسید.
• گاهی اوقات فهرستی طولانی تر از پاسخهای ممکن به شما داده می شود و شما باید بیش از یک جواب را انتخاب کنید. شما باید سوال را جهت بررسی اینکه چه تعداد پاسخ نیاز دارید انتخاب کنید با دقت بخوانید.
•سئوالات به همان ترتیبی هستند که اطلاعات درون متن می آیند: این یعنی اینکه، پاسخ به اولین سوال قبل از پاسخ به دومین سوال خواهد بود و غیره. چه مهارتهایی تست می شوند؟
• این نوع سوال مهارتهای خواندن بسیار متفاوتی را تست می کند شامل: درک مفصل از نکات خاص یا درک کلی از نکات اصلی متن. تکنیکهای پاسخگویی: • نگاهی سریع به متن بکنید – جملات اول و جمله آخر هر پارگراف فراموش نشوند.
• نگاهی اجمالی به سئوالات داشته باشید.
• کلمات هدف کلیدی را برای مطالعه دقیق تشخیص دهید (زیر آنها خط بکشید)
• کلمات هدف را دقیق بررسی کنید به خصوص اینکه چگونه احتمالا با کلمات مترادف دیگری ممکن است همخوانی داشته باشند.
• اکنون که کلمات هدف را و یا مترداف آنها در متن پیدا کردید، اطراف کلمه هدف را برای یافتن پاسخ خود با دقت بخوانید. • مراقب گزینه هایی که صرفا پرت کننده حواس هستند باشید. برخی از گزینه ها بعنوان تله استفاده میشوند. معانی را به دقت بررسی کنید.
به نمونه زیر از کتاب آیلتس انتشارات Barron’s دقت کنید:
Firefighting became a competitive business, as companies fought to be the first to arrive at a scene to access the water pipes. After a series of fires destroyed parts of London, fire-fighting companies were forced to reconsider their intentions. By the eighteenth century, fire brigades began to join forces, and in 1833 the Sun Insurance Company along with ten other London companies created the London Fire Engine Establishment. In 1865, the government became involved, bringing standards to both fire prevention and firefighting and establishing London’s Metropolitan Fire Brigade. Though the firemen were well paid, they were constantly on duty and thus obliged to call their fire station home for both themselves and their families.
New technology for fighting fires continued to develop in both Europe and the New World. Leather hoses with couplings that joined the lengths together were hand-sewn in the Netherlands and used until the latel800s, when rubber hoses became available. The technology for steam engine fire trucks was available in Britain and America in 1829, but most brigades were hesitant to use them until the 1850s. It was the public that eventually forced the brigades into putting the more efficient equipment to use. In the early 1900s, when the internal-combustion engine was developed, the trucks became motorized. This was a timely advancement in fire-fighting history, as World War I put added pressure on brigades throughout the world.
Firemen who worked for the Metropolitan Fire Brigade
A. earned low salaries.
B. lived at the fire station.
C. were not allowed to marry.
ابتدا باید به دنبال محل پاسخ در متن باشیم. بااستفاده از تکنیک اسکن کردن شروع به گشتن متن به دنبال عبارت Metropolitan میکنیم. دلیل اینکه این عبارت را انتخاب میکنیم این است که با حروف بزرگ نوشته شده است و پیدا کردن آن راحت میباشد. متوجه میشویم که در آخر پاراگراف اول راجع به این موضوع اطلاعاتی داده شده و بنابراین این پاراگراف را به دقت میخوانیم و به سوال پاسخ میدهیم .همانگونه که شما هم به درستی پاسخ دادید پاسخ درست گزینه B میباشد. از گزینه A بعنوان یک حقه استفاده شده است. با دیدن کلمه SALARY در متن احتمالا ما سریعا این گزینه را انتخاب میکنیم در صورتی که کلمه WELL – PAID متضاد کلمه LOW SALARY میباشد و این گزینه پاسخ نمی باشد.
اکنون نوبت شماست:
به نمونه زیر از کتاب راهنمای رسمی آیلتس انتشارات Cambridgeپاسخ دهید: ( مدت زمان 5دقیقه)
For a fascinating tale about creativity, look at a cleaning product called the Swifter and how it came about, urges writer Jonah Lehrer. In the story of the Swifter, he argues, we have the key elements in producing breakthrough ideas: frustration, moments of insight and sheer hard work. The story starts with a multinational company which had invented products for keeping homes spotless, and couldn't come up with better ways to dean floors, so it hired designers to watch how people cleaned. Frustrated after hundreds of hours of observation, they one day noticed a woman do with a paper towel what people do all the time: wipe something up and throw it away. An idea popped into lead designer Harry West head: the solution to their problem was a floor mop with a disposable cleaning surface. Mountains of prototypes and years of teamwork later, they unveiled the Swiffer, which quickly became a commercial success.
Lehrer, the author of Imagine, a new book that seeks to explain how creativity works, says this study of the imagination started from a desire to understand what happens in the brain at the moment of sudden insight. ‘But the book definitely spiraled out of control,’ Lehrer says. 'When you talk to creative people, they'll tell you about the 'eureka’ moment, but when you press them they also talk about the hard work that comes afterwards, so I realized I needed to write about that, too. And then I realized I couldn't just look at creativity from the perspective of the brain, because it's also about the culture and context, about the group and the team and the way we collaborate.
' When it comes to the mysterious process by which inspiration comes into your head as if from nowhere, Lehrer says modern neuroscience has produced a 'first draft’ explanation of what is happening in the brain. He writes of how burnt-out American singer Bob Dylan decided to walk away from his musical career in 1965 and escape to a cabin in the woods, only to be overcome by a desire to write. Apparently 'Like a Roiling Stone' suddenly flowed from his pen. 'It's like a ghost is writing a song,' Dylan has reportedly said. It gives you the song and it goes away. But it's no ghost, according to Lehrer.
Instead, the right hemisphere of the brain is assembling connections between past influences and making something entirely new. Neuroscientists have roughly charted this process by mapping the brains of people doing word puzzles solved by making sense of remotely connecting information. For instance, subjects are given three words -such as 'age', ‘mile' and 'sand’ - and asked to come up with a single word that can precede or follow each of them to form a compound word, (It happens to be ‘stone'.) Using brain-imaging equipment, researchers discovered that when people get the answer in an apparent flash of insight, a small fold of tissue called the anterior superior temporal gyrus suddenly lights up just beforehand. This stays silent when the word puzzle is solved through careful analysis. Lehrer says that this area of the brain lights up only after we've hit the wall on a problem. Then the brain starts hunting through the filing cabinets of the right hemisphere, to make the connections that produce the right answer.
Studies have demonstrated it’s possible to predict a moment of insight up to eight seconds before it arrives. The predictive signal is a steady rhythm of alpha waves emanating from the brain's right hemisphere, which are closely associated with relaxing activities. 'When our minds are at ease - when those alpha waves are rippling through the brain - we're more likely to direct the spotlight of attention towards that stream of remote associations emanating from the right hemisphere,’ Lehrer writes. In contrast, when we are diligently focused, our attention tends to be towards the details of the problems we are trying to solve.' In other words, then we are less likely to make those vital associations. So, heading out for a walk or lying down are important phases of the creative process, and smart companies know this. Some now have a policy of encouraging staff to take time out during the day and spend time on things that at first glance are unproductive (like playing a PC game), but day-dreaming has been shown to be positively correlated with problem-solving. However, to be more imaginative, says Lehrer, it's also crucial to collaborate with people from a wide range of backgrounds because if colleagues are too socially intimate, creativity is stifled.
Creativity, it seems, thrives on serendipity. American entrepreneur Steve Jobs believed so Lehrer describes how at Pixar Animation, Jobs designed the entire workplace to maximize the chance of strangers bumping into each other, striking up conversations and learning from one another. He also points to a study of 766 business graduates who had gone on to own their own companies. Those with the greatest diversity of acquaintances enjoyed far more success. Lehrer says he has taken all this on board, and despite his inherent shyness, when he's sitting next to strangers on a plane or at a conference, forces himself to initiate conversations. As for predictions that the rise of the Internet would make the need for shared working space obsolete, Lehrer says research shows the opposite has occurred; when people meet face-to-face, the level of creativity increases. This is why the kind of place we live in is so important to innovation. According to theoretical physicist Geoffrey West, when corporate institutions get bigger, they often become less receptive to change. Cities, however, allow our ingenuity to grow by pulling huge numbers of different people together, who then exchange ideas. Working from the comfort of our homes may be convenient, therefore, but it seems we need the company of others to achieve our finest 'eureka’ moments.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
1. what are we told about the product called a ‘Swiffer’?
A. Its designers had little experience working with household objects.
B. Once the idea for it was conceived, it did not take tong to develop.
C. It achieved profits beyond the manufacturer's expectations.
D. Its design was inspired by a common housework habit.