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مقالات و منابع آیلتس :Reading skill - Short answer Questions

مقالات و منابع آیلتس :Reading skill - Short answer Questions

سوالات با پاسخ کوتاه

  • در این نوع سئوال، شما باید سئوالات درباره جزئیات واقعی در متن را جواب بدهید.
  • جوابها را بصورت کلمات یا اعداد بر روی پاسخنامه بنویسید.
  • جوابها باید از کلمات درون متن گرفته شده باشد و نباید از یک تعداد کلمه محدود بیشتر باشد. برای مثال، "بیشتر از دو کلمه و/یا یک عدد نباشد". شما برای نوشتن بیش از حدود کلمه نمره را از دست خواهید داد. اعداد می توانند با استفاده از تصاویر (1,2,…) یا کلمات (یک، دو و ...) نوشته شوند.
  • کلمات دارای خط فاصله بعنوان مثال “Check – in” بعنوان یک تک کلمه حساب می شوند.
  • جوابها به همان ترتیبی می آیند که اطلاعات در متن آمده اند.

چه چیزی تست می شود؟

  • این نوع سئوالات توانایی شما را در یافتن و درک اطلاعات خاص درون متن تست می کند.

تکنیکهای پاسخگویی به سئوالات پاسخ کوتاه

  • دستورالعمل ها را به دقت بخوانید – این دستورالعمل ها به شما می گویند که چند تا کلمه می توانید استفاده کنید.
  • در سئوالات پاسخ کوتاه IELTS شما باید کلمات متن را استفاده کنید، و کلمات را تغییر ندهید.
  • سریعا همه سئوالات را بخوانید. در این صورت شما می توانید ایده ای از اینکه چه اطلاعاتی شما باید در متن پیدا کنید بدست می آورید.
  • از کلمات کلیدی سئوال برای کمک به اینکه متن را سریعا برای یافتن اطلاعات بگردید استفاده کنید.
  • بیاد داشته باشید که مترداف ها نیز در متن استفاده می شوند، پس شما باید مراقب باشید وقتی که به دنبال اطلاعات می گردید متوجه مترادف ها هم باشید.
  • آن قسمت از متن را که می دانید جواب است برای دیدن اینکه کدام کلمات جواب سئوال را می دهد به دقت بخوانید.

به نمونه زیر از کتاب آیلتس انتشارات Barron’s دقت کنید:

The Vikings’ Wayfaring Ways

Perhaps best known as fierce warriors, the Vikings were also the most far-ranging of peoples. In fact, the term Viking, in Old Norse, means “to go on an expedition.” From the late 700s until the eleventh century, Viking explorers journeyed from their native Norway, Denmark, and Sweden to many distant lands. They traveled as far west as Newfoundland in present-day Canada, and as far east as Baghdad.

Those from Norway sailed west to the British Isles, and eventually across the Atlantic Ocean. During their first expedition, in 793, a force of Viking warriors sacked the famed abbey at Lindisfarne, on England’s northeast coast. In the 800s, groups of raiders went on to occupy the Shetland Islands, north of the British Isles and west of Norway, and the Orkney Islands off northern Scotland.

By 870, the Vikings were settling Iceland. In 980, an Icelandic assembly found a man named Eric “the Red” Ericson guilty of murder and sent him into exile. Eric the Red responded by sailing to a large island to the west, which he called “Greenland.” An Icelandic saga mentions that people would be attracted to go to Greenland if it had a favorable2 name. Around 998, Eric the Red’s son, Leif “the Lucky” Ericson, and a small Viking fleet sailed west to North America. There they established the first European settlement in the New World, called “Vinland.”

To the south, the Vikings conquered France, moving swiftly up rivers in long boats, powered by oar and sail. From 845 to 886, they surged up the Seine to attack Paris three times. To stop the raids, French King Charles III the Simple in 911 offered the Viking chief Rollo territories in northwest France, called Normandy, after the Normans or “Northmen.” There they set up a powerful kingdom and, in 1066, under William, Duke of Normandy, defeated King Harold at the battle of Hastings in England.

Questions 1

Answer the questions below.
Choose ONE NUMBER ONLY from the text for each answer.

  1. When did Viking warriors defeat an English king?

ابتدا باید به دنبال محل پاسخ در متن باشیم. بااستفاده از تکنیک اسکن کردن شروع به گشتن متن به دنبال عبارت

English king میکنیم. دلیل اینکه این عبارت را انتخاب میکنیم این است که با حروف بزرگ نوشته شده است و پیدا کردن آن راحت میباشد.

متوجه میشویم که در پاراگراف آخر راجع به این موضوع اطلاعاتی داده شده و بنابراین این پاراگراف را به دقت میخوانیم و به سوال پاسخ میدهیم.

همانگونه که شما هم به درستی پاسخ دادید پاسخ درست 1066 میباشد.

اکنون نوبت شماست:

به نمونه زیر از کتاب راهنمای رسمی آیلتس انتشارات Cambridge پاسخ دهید: ( مدت زمان 7 دقیقه)

Whale Stranding

Why do whales leave the ocean and become stuck on beaches?

When the last stranded whale of a group eventually dies, the story does not end there. A team of researchers begins to investigate, collecting skin samples for instance, recording anything that could help them answer the crucial question: why? Theories abound, some more convincing than others. In recent years, navy sonar has been accused of causing certain whales to strand. It is known that noise pollution from offshore industry, shipping and sonar can impair underwater communication, but can it really drive whales onto our beaches?

In 1998, researchers at the Pelagos Cetacean Research Institute, a Greek non-profit scientific group, linked whale stranding with low-frequency sonar tests being carried out by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). "They recorded the stranding of 12 Cuvier's beaked whales over 38.2 kilometers of coastline, NATO later admitted it had been testing new sonar technology in the same area at the time as the stranding had occurred. ‘Mass’ whale stranding involve four or more animals. Typically they all wash ashore together, but in mass atypical stranding (such as the one in Greece), the whales don't strand as a group; they are scattered over a larger area.

For humans, hearing a sudden loud noise might prove frightening, but it does not induce mass fatality. For whales, on the other hand, there is a theory on how sonar can kill. The noise can surprise the animal, causing it to swim too quickly to the surface. The result is decompression sickness, a hazard human divers know all too well. If a diver ascends too quickly from a high-pressure underwater environment to a lower-pressure one, gases dissolved in blood and tissue expand and form bubbles. The bubbles block the flow of blood to vital organs, and can ultimately lead to death.

Plausible as this seems, it is still a theory and based on our more comprehensive knowledge of land-based animals. For this reason, some scientists are wary. Whale expert Karen Evans is one such scientist. Another is Rosemary Gales, a leading expert on whale stranding. She says sonar technology cannot always be blamed for mass stranding. "It’s a case-by-case situation. Whales have been stranding tor a very long time-pre-sonar." And when 80% of all Australian whale stranding occur around Tasmania, Gales and her team must continue in the search for answers.

When animals beach next to each other at the same time, the most common cause has nothing to do with humans at all, "They're highly social creatures" says Gales. When they mass strand – it is complete panic and chaos. If one of the group strands and sounds the alarm, others will try to swim to its aid, and become stuck themselves"

Questions 1-3

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.

  1. What do researchers often take from the bodies of whales?
  2. What do some industries and shipping create that is harmful to whales?
  3. In which geographical region do most whale strandings in Australia happen?

پاسخ ها:

  1. Skin samples
  2. Noise pollution
  3. Around Tasmania

منابع:

Barron’s IELTS Practice Exams (2010)

www.cambridgeenglish.org/exams/ielts

Cambridge official guide to IELTS (2014)

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